In the book "Why Evolution Is True" the author states:
"— this volume gives a succinct summary of why modern science recognizes evolution as true." (p-xiv) --- it really consists of six components: evolution, gradualism, speciation, common ancestry, natural selection, and nonselective mechanisms of evolutionary change. (p-3)[emphasis supplied]
The book's Figure 1 (below left) is a graphic depictions of Darwin's hypothesis of Descent From A Common ancestor, typical of the science's universal expression of the progressive development of animal forms from the proposed common ancestor --- the divergent animal forms depending on "species splitting" at, for example, a common ancestor designated as node X, a single ancestral species, that split into two descendant species.
The right-hand figure is the book's Figure 1 that has been edited to illustrate (sequences of blurred images) where, following the split, each species underwent development.
In this blog, the X points are considered "starting points" representing the first documented appearance of a body plan sufficient to be recognized as a new species, or individual traits recognized as "novelties".
The field's information base provides a variety of "morphological scenarios" that are contrary to Darwin's "Descent With Modification" from a "Last Universal Common Ancestor." This blog summarizes a representative sample of body-plan and trait "first appearances" that illustrate the fallcy of the Last Universal Common Ancestor concept. The following figure acts as a "table of contents" to "morphological scenarios" that involve the origination of body plans and traits. The central vertical column in the following figure is a lineage schema of body plan and trait "starting points"--- "starting points" are not necessarily lineage time specific nor sequence specific in relation to the hypothetical sequence from the Last Universal Common Ancestor to a later body plan condition. Red Starting Points: Body-plans complete at species first appearance---first-appearance circumstances preclude an immediate common ancestor. Yellow Starting Points: Body-plans complete at species first appearance---first-appearance circumstances hypothesized from inferred immediate common ancestor. Blue Starting Points: Individual trait(s) complete at trait first appearance---undescribed immediate preceding traits. Brown Starting Points: Traits addressed only in conceptual framework.
– LINK –
Parallelism/Convergence – LINK –
Bauplan Homologies – LINK –
Speciation – LINK –
Species Splitting – LINK –
Adaptation – LINK –
New Variants/Novelties – LINK –
Novelties – LINK –
Family Bauplan Origin – LINK –
Bauplan Origin – LINK –
Horizontal Gene Transfer – LINK –
Phyla-level Trait Origins – LINK – –
Phylogenetic Trees – LINK –
Bauplan Stasis – LINK –
Phylogenetic Sequences – LINK –
Trait "Gaps" – LINK –
Diphyletic Isolation – LINK –
Polytomys – LINK –
Hox Genes – LINK –