In the book "Why Evolution Is True" the author states:

"— this volume gives a succinct summary of why modern science recognizes evolution as true." (p-xiv) --- it really consists of six components: evolution, gradualism, speciation, common ancestry, natural selection, and nonselective mechanisms of evolutionary change. (p-3)[emphasis supplied]

The book's Figure 1 (below left) is a graphic depictions of Darwin's hypothesis of Descent From A Common ancestor, typical of the science's universal expression of the progressive development of animal forms from the proposed common ancestor --- the divergent animal forms depending on "species splitting" at, for example, a common ancestor designated as node X, a single ancestral species, that split into two descendant species.

The right-hand figure is the book's Figure 1 that has been edited to illustrate (sequences of blurred images) where, following the split, each species underwent development.

In this blog, the X points are considered "starting points" representing the first documented appearance of a body plan sufficient to be recognized as a new species, or individual traits recognized as "novelties".

The field's information base provides a variety of "morphological scenarios" that are contrary to Darwin's "Descent With Modification" from a "Last Universal Common Ancestor."

This blog summarizes a representative sample of body-plan and trait "first appearances" that illustrate the fallcy of the Last Universal Common Ancestor concept.

The following figure acts as a "table of contents" to "morphological scenarios" that involve the origination of body plans and traits.

The central vertical column in the following figure is a lineage schema of body plan and trait "starting points"--- "starting points" are not necessarily lineage time specific nor sequence specific in relation to the hypothetical sequence from the Last Universal Common Ancestor to a later body plan condition.

Red Starting Points: Body-plans complete at species first appearance---first-appearance circumstances preclude an immediate common ancestor.

Yellow Starting Points: Body-plans complete at species first appearance---first-appearance circumstances hypothesized from inferred immediate common ancestor.

Blue Starting Points: Individual trait(s) complete at trait first appearance---undescribed immediate preceding traits.

Brown Starting Points: Traits addressed only in conceptual framework.

Parallelism/Convergence – LINK
Bauplan Homologies – LINK
Speciation – LINK
Species Splitting – LINK
Adaptation – LINK
New Variants/Novelties – LINK
Novelties – LINK
Family Bauplan Origin – LINK
Bauplan Origin – LINK
Horizontal Gene Transfer – LINK
Phyla-level Trait Origins – LINK
Phylogenetic Trees – LINK
Bauplan Stasis – LINK
Novelties – LINKLINK
Phylogenetic Sequences – LINK
Trait "Gaps" – LINK
Diphyletic Isolation – LINK
Polytomys – LINK
Hox Genes – LINK
Diphyletic Origins – LINKLINK
Cladogram Nodes – LINKLINK